Latest Pharma Articles


A new idea about the origin of complex life turns current theories inside out. In the open access journal BMC Biology, cousins Buzz and David Baum explain their ‘inside-out’ theory of how eukaryot

Charge from water droplets

Last year, MIT researchers discovered that when water droplets spontaneously jump away from superhydrophobic surfaces during condensation, they can gain electric charge in the process. Now, the same t

Supressing the fear gene

Their study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, sheds new light on the processes involved in loosening the grip of fear-related memories, particularly those implicated i

Life-span of different animals

Scientists at the University of Liverpool have developed a new method to detect proteins associated with longevity, which helps further our understanding into why some animals live longer than others.

Leech therapy

A 19-year-old woman who lost her ear to a dog attack got it back with the help of a few leeches. A pit bull mauling left the 19-year-old with a small laceration on her arm and her left ear entirely to

FM radio in Bacteria

Programming living cells offers the prospect of harnessing sophisticated biological machinery for transformative applications in energy, agriculture, water remediation and medicine. Inspired by engine


Pharmacodynamics is the study of drug effects. It attempts to elucidate the complete action-effect sequence and the dose-effect relationship. Modification of the action of one drug by another drug is

Cell Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm: It is the mass of living material which consists of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, pigments, minerals, vitamins and various organelles embedded in it. Cytoplasm may be granular, homogenous

Ovary & it’s functions

Ovary are two pear shaped bodies lying at the free end of each fallopian tube, hanging in a fold of peritoneum from the broad ligament in the pelvis. They become active from puberty to menopause and s

Olfactory organ of the Nose

The receptors for the sensation of smell are found in the roof of nasal cavity. The sensation of taste is closely related to that of smell. Odour often influences the selection of food and our enjoyme

The Venous System

All the systemic veins return blood to the right atrium of the heart through superior vena cava. Superior vena cava is formed by two brachiocephalic veins that bring the blood from head, neck, upper e

The Vertebral Column

Vertebral column consists of a series of vertebrae and forms the axis to which other bones of the skeleton are connected. The skull is situated on the pivot at the top of the vertebral column which is

Bacteria- A know-how

Bacteria are found everywhere- in air, water, vegetables, soil, animals, birds, human beings and various other articles like foods and excreta. They are living bodies that need particular type of food

Structure of Pancreas

Pancreas is a mixed type of gland consisting of two parts: Exocrine part and Endocrine part. The bulk of the Pancreas consists of glandular acini which secrete a powerful digestive juice into the


When the ovum is fertilized, pregnancy ensues. It proceeds for 280 days or nine months and ten days to terminate into parturition resulting in the birth of a baby. Physiological Changes: During pregna
Physiology of Ageing

What is Physiology of ageing?

Gerontology is a multidisciplinary study of old age from various points of view-biological, medical, sociological, economical and also the Physiology of Ageing. It is an important branch of medicine i

What is Menstrual cycle?

In nature, for a female, getting pregnant and giving birth to a new born is her sole purpose. Its like females are destined to be. One of the greatest things in this world for women is to become a mot